Latest Sugars-Related Research (2021)

CSI provides a monthly summary of new research on sugars and carbohydrates published each month, based on a PubMed search using pre-established search terms. The publications are grouped by topic areas and ordered from higher to lower quality based on the hierarchy of medical evidence. A summary of the screening process is provided below: 

Time: At the end of each month
Database: PubMed
Search Terms:

((Sugar*[Title/Abstract] OR sucrose[Title/Abstract] OR added sugar*[Title/Abstract] OR beverage[Title/Abstract] OR soft drink*[Title/Abstract] OR soda[Title/Abstract] OR diet soda[Title/Abstract] OR sweet*[Title/Abstract] OR fructose[Title/Abstract] OR carbohydrate*[Title/Abstract] OR cola[Title/Abstract] OR SSB[Title/Abstract] OR honey[Title/Abstract] OR carbonated beverage*[Title/Abstract] OR energy drink*[Title/Abstract] OR fruit*[Title/Abstract]) AND (obes*[Title/Abstract] OR overweight[Title/Abstract] OR body mass index[Title/Abstract] OR BMI[Title/Abstract] OR weight gain[Title/Abstract] OR body weight*[Title/Abstract] OR waist circumference[Title/Abstract] OR body fat[Title/Abstract] OR adiposity[Title/Abstract] OR satiety[Title/Abstract] OR satiation[Title/Abstract] OR appetite[Title/Abstract] OR receptor[Title/Abstract] OR taste[Title/Abstract] OR postprandial[Title/Abstract] OR hormone[Title/Abstract] OR hunger[Title/Abstract] OR fullness[Title/Abstract] OR second meal[Title/Abstract] OR food intake[Title/Abstract] OR meal intake [Title/Abstract] OR cognition[Title/Abstract] OR brain[Title/Abstract] OR reward[Title/Abstract] OR food intake[Title/Abstract] OR hedonic[Title/Abstract] OR neuronal[Title/Abstract] OR sensitivity[Title/Abstract] OR addiction[Title/Abstract] OR hyperactive*[Title/Abstract] OR binge eating disorder[Title/Abstract] OR BED[Title/Abstract] OR behaviour* [Title/Abstract] OR insulin resistance[Title/Abstract] OR hyperinsulin*[Title/Abstract] OR diabet*[Title/Abstract] OR HbA1c[Title/Abstract] OR hemoglobin A, glycosylated[Title/Abstract] OR fructosamine[Title/Abstract] OR gly*albumin[Title/Abstract] OR glyc?em*[Title/Abstract] OR fatty liver*[Title/Abstract] OR NAFLD[Title/Abstract] OR NAFL[Title/Abstract] OR NASH[Title/Abstract] OR liver stenosis[Title/Abstract] OR liver cirrhosis[Title/Abstract] OR liver histology[Title/Abstract] OR liver fibrosis[Title/Abstract] OR liver intrahepatocellular lipid [Title/Abstract] OR triglycerides[Title/Abstract] OR lipids[Title/Abstract] OR fat[Title/Abstract] OR triacylglycerol[Title/Abstract] OR VLDL[Title/Abstract] OR low density lipoprotein[Title/Abstract] OR lip?emia[Title/Abstract] OR cholesterol[Title/Abstract] OR cardio*[Title/Abstract] OR heart disease[Title/Abstract] OR coronary disease[Title/Abstract] OR stroke[Title/Abstract] OR myocardial infarction[Title/Abstract] OR heart failure[Title/Abstract] OR peripheral arterial disease[Title/Abstract] OR hypertension[Title/Abstract] OR blood pressure [Title/Abstract] OR cancer[Title/Abstract] OR tumor[Title/Abstract] OR cancerogenic [Title/Abstract] OR dental caries[Title/Abstract] OR oral health[Title/Abstract] OR tooth[Title/Abstract] OR teeth[Title/Abstract] OR decay[Title/Abstract] OR tooth decay[Title/Abstract] OR physical activity[Title/Abstract] OR exercise[Title/Abstract] OR sport[Title/Abstract] OR energy [Title/Abstract] OR kidney[Title/Abstract] OR renal[Title/Abstract] OR nephropathy[Title/Abstract] OR uric acid[Title/Abstract] OR hyperuric*[Title/Abstract] OR gout[Title/Abstract] OR urate[Title/Abstract] OR uric[Title/Abstract] OR acne[Title/Abstract] OR skin[Title/Abstract] OR ageing [Title/Abstract] OR micronutrient dilution[Title/Abstract] OR vitamin*[Title/Abstract] OR mineral*[Title/Abstract] OR deficiency [Title/Abstract] OR glycaemic inde*[Title/Abstract] OR glycemic inde*[Title/Abstract] OR glycaemic load*[Title/Abstract] OR glycemic load* [Title/Abstract] OR inflammatory arthritis [Title/Abstract] OR microbiome [Title/Abstract] OR consumption[Title/Abstract] OR diet[Title/Abstract] OR nutrition [Title/Abstract] OR CRP[Title/Abstract] OR c-reactive protein[Title/Abstract])) AND (("xx"[Date - Publication] : "xx"[Date - Publication]))

Date of Publication: From the first to the last day of each month.

Selection criteria:
Read through each of the titles and abstracts to identify all studies conducted in humans that are related to sugars, carbohydrates in the context of diet, health and public policy.

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February 2021

Below is a full list of sugars-related scientific publications published in February 2021, grouped by topic areas and ordered from higher to lower quality evidence. 

Topic Title Citations Study Type
COVID-19 COVID-19 stress and eating and drinking behaviors in the United States during the early stages of the pandemic. Cummings JR et a. Appetite. 2021 Feb 12;162:105163l.  Cross-Sectional Study
Obesity  Association between sugar-sweetened beverages and waist circumference in adult populations: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.   Ardeshirlarijani E et al. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Feb;41:118-125.  SRMA
[Ultra-processed food consumption and obesity-a systematic review].   Martí Del Moral A et al. Nutr Hosp. 2021 Feb 23;38(1):177-185.  Systematic Review 
Association of dietary patterns with blood pressure and body adiposity in adolescents: a systematic review.   Neves MEA et al. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2021 Feb 2.  Systematic Review
Causal relationship between dietary macronutrient composition and anthropometric measures: A bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis.   Freuer D et al. Clin Nutr. 2021 Feb 8:S0261-5614(21)00075-3.  RCT
Early childhood factors associated with obesity at age 8 in Vietnamese children: The Young Lives Cohort Study.   Nguyen T et al. BMC Public Health. 2021 Feb 5;21(1):301.  Prospective Cohort
Social Jetlag Is Associated with the Frequency of Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and a High BMI Percentile in Adolescents: Results of the Cross-Sectional Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study.   Cetiner O et al. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2021 Feb 27:S2212-2672(21)00064-2.  Cross-Sectional Study
Sweet taste and obesity.   Ribeiro G et al. Eur J Intern Med. 2021 Feb 13:S0953-6205(21)00023-6.  Narrative Review
Impact of carbohydrates, fat and energy density on energy intake.   Stubbs RJ. Nat Med. 2021 Feb;27(2):200-201.  Narrative Review
Dietary Carbohydrate, Energy Expenditure, and Weight Loss: Is Eating Less and Burning More Possible?   Magkos F, Astrup A. J Nutr. 2021 Feb 9:nxaa423. Narrative Review
Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Focused on Normalization of Glycemia: A Two-Year Pilot Study.  McKenzie AL et al. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 26;13(3):749.  RCT
Low-carbohydrate dietary pattern on glycemic outcomes trial (ADEPT) among individuals with elevated hemoglobin A1c: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.   Dorans KS et al. Trials. 2021 Feb 1;22(1):108.  RCT
Effects of Meal Fructose/Glucose Composition on Postprandial Glucose Appearance and Hepatic Glycogen Synthesis in Healthy Subjects.   Barosa C et al. J Clin Med. 2021 Feb 5;10(4):596.  RCT
A low-carbohydrate dietary pattern characterised by high animal fat and protein during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese women: A prospective cohort study.   Dong H et al. Br J Nutr. 2021 Feb 18:1-22. PROSPECTIVE  Prospective Cohort Study
Measurement of Available Carbohydrates in Cereal and Cereal Products, Dairy Products, Vegetables, Fruit and Related Food Products and Animal Feeds: First Action 2020.07.   McCleary BV, McLoughlin C. J AOAC Int. 2021 Feb 5:qsab019.  Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrition Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.   Kapur K et al. Ann Nutr Metab. 2021 Feb 1:1-13.  Narrative Review
Executive summary: Updates to the dietary treatment of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.   Pascual Fuster V et al. Clin Investig Arterioscler. 2021 Feb 18:S0214-9168(21)00002-4.  Narrative Review
Cardiovascular Disease Intake of Sugar-Sweetened and Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.   Yin J et al. Adv Nutr. 2021 Feb 1;12(1):89-101.  SRMA
The association between Sugars Sweetened Beverages (SSBs) and lipid profile among children and youth: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.   Nikniaz L et al. Pediatr Obes. 2021 Feb 24:e12782.  SRMA
The acute and postprandial effects of sugar moiety on vascular and metabolic health outcomes in adolescents.   Koep J et al. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2021 Feb 17.  RCT
A Pilot Study Comparing the Effects of Consuming 100% Orange Juice or Sucrose-Sweetened Beverage on Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease in Women.   Price CA et al. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 26;13(3):760.  RCT
Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drink Consumption Acutely Decreases Spontaneous Baroreflex Sensitivity and Heart Rate Variability.   Chapman CL et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2021 Feb 3. RCT
Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality.   Jenkins DJA et al; PURE Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2021 Feb 24.  Narrative Review
Cancer Consumption of Sweet Beverages and Cancer Risk. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.   Llaha F et al. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 4;13(2):516.  SRMA
Sugary Drink Consumption and Subsequent Colorectal Cancer Risk: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Cohort Study.   Leung CY et al; JPHC Study Group. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2021 Feb 9.  Prospective Cohort
Dental Health Effect of sugar-sweetened beverages on oral health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Valenzuela MJ et al. Eur J Public Health. 2021 Feb 1;31(1):122-129.  SRMA
Association of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference With Dental Caries and Consequences of Untreated Dental Caries Among 12- to 14-Year-old Boys: A Cross-Sectional Study.   Gudipaneni RK et al. Int Dent J. 2021 Feb 20:S0020-6539(21)00011-3.  Cross-Sectional Study
High abundance of sugar metabolisers in saliva of children with caries.   Manzoor M et al. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 24;11(1):4424.  Narrative Review
Liver Health Effects of fructose restriction on liver steatosis (FRUITLESS); a double-blind randomized controlled trial.  Simons N et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Feb 2;113(2):391-400.  RCT
Efficacy of Dietary Manipulations for Depleting Intrahepatic Triglyceride Content: Implications for the Management of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.  Sandby K et al. Curr Obes Rep. 2021 Feb 13.  RCT
Associations Between Intake of Sugar-Containing Beverages in Infancy With Liver Fat Accumulation at School Age.  Geurtsen ML et al. Hepatology. 2021 Feb;73(2):560-570.  Prospective Cohort
Soft drink consumption and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) cohort study.  Zhang S et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Feb 10:nqaa380.  Prospective Cohort
Fructose and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis.  Zhang S et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Feb 10:nqaa380.  Narrative Review
Liver fat storage pathways: methodologies and dietary effects.  Roumans KHM et al. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2021 Feb 1;32(1):9-15.  Narrative Review
To Juice or Not to Juice: Fatty Liver Repercussions for Infants.  Di Guglielmo MD, Perito ER. Hepatology. 2021 Feb;73(2):483-485.  Narrative Review
Pregnancy & Lactation  Using a Microsimulation of Energy Balance to Explore the Influence of Prenatal Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake on Child BMI.   Kasman M et al. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2021 Feb 22.  Prospective Cohort
Other Health-Related Topics Causal effects of relative fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake on chronic kidney disease: a Mendelian randomization study.   Park S et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Feb 10:nqaa379.   RCT
Age difference in the combined effect of soda drinks consumption and body adiposity on hyperuricaemia in US adults.   Lin WT et al. Public Health Nutr. 2021 Feb 5:1-13.  Cross-Sectional Study
Association between asthma and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the United States pediatric population.  Xie L et al. J Asthma. 2021 Feb 24:1-11.  Cross-Sectional Study
Influence of family history, body mass index, selected dietary factors, personal habits, and menstrual history on oily skin in young women.   Yang Z et al. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2021 Feb 25.  Case-Control
The metabolic impact of small intestinal nutrient sensing.   Duca FA et al. Nat Commun. 2021 Feb 10;12(1):903.  Narrative Review
Dietary Intake Assessment Using behavioural insights to reduce sugar in primary school children's packed lunches in derby; A cluster randomised controlled trial Bunten A et al. Appetite. 2021 Feb 1;157:104987.  RCT
Impact of a nutrition education programme on free sugar intake & nutrition-related knowledge in fifth-grade schoolchildren.   Winzer E et al. Eur J Public Health. 2021 Feb 1;31(1):136-142.  Prospective Case-Control
World trends in sugar-sweetened beverage and dietary sugar intakes in children and adolescents: a systematic review.   Della Corte K et al. Nutr Rev. 2021 Feb 11;79(3):274-288. Systematic Review
Secular Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Adults, Teens, and Children: The California Health Interview Survey, 2011-2018.   Lee MM et al. Prev Chronic Dis. 2021 Feb 18;18:E12.  Cross-Sectional Study
Global Dietary Database 2017: data availability and gaps on 54 major foods, beverages and nutrients among 5.6 million children and adults from 1220 surveys worldwide.   Miller V et al. BMJ Glob Health. 2021 Feb;6(2):e003585.  Systematic Review
A Genome-wide Association Study on Confection Consumption in a Japanese Population- The Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study.   Suzuki T et al; J-MICC Research Group. Br J Nutr. 2021 Feb 26:1-37.  Prospective Cohort
Dietary patterns and intrinsic capacity among community-dwelling older adults: a 3-year prospective cohort study.   Huang CH et al. Eur J Nutr. 2021 Feb 17.  Prospective Cohort
Dietary patterns and food insecurity of students participating in a food aid programme: the Mediterranean perspective.   Kastorini CM et al; DIATROFI Program Research Team. Eur J Public Health. 2021 Feb 1;31(1):143-150.  Cross-Sectional Study
Diet Quality & Nutrient Adequacy Correlates of a southern diet pattern in a national cohort study of blacks and whites: the REGARDS study.   Couch CA et al. Br J Nutr. 2021 Feb 26:1-24.  Prospective Cohort
Trends in food consumption by degree of processing and diet quality over 17 years: Results from the Framingham Offspring Study.   Juul F et al. Br J Nutr. 2021 Feb 19:1-29.  Prospective Cohort
Ten-year changes in diet quality among adolescents and young adults (Food Consumption Survey 2004 and 2014, Belgium).   Desbouys L et al. Eur J Nutr. 2021 Feb 11.  Cross-Sectional Study
Examining commonalities and differences in food groups, nutrients, and diet quality among popular diets.   Turner-McGrievy G et al. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Feb;41:377-385.  Narrative Review
Appetite, Taste, & Eating Behaviour  Changes in subjective measures of appetite during 6 months of alternate day fasting with a low carbohydrate diet.   Kalam F et al. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Feb;41:417-422.  RCT
Associations between opioid dependence and sweet taste preference.   Garfield JBB, Lubman DI. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2021 Feb 1.  Cross-Sectional Study
The concept of "food addiction" helps inform the understanding of overeating and obesity: YES.  Gearhardt AN, Hebebrand J. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Feb 2;113(2):263-267.  Narrative Review
Physical Activity  Coingestion of Carbohydrate and Protein on Muscle Glycogen Synthesis after Exercise: A Meta-analysis.   Margolis LM et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2021 Feb 1;53(2):384-393.  SRMA
High-Fat Ketogenic Diets and Physical Performance: A Systematic Review.   Murphy NE et al. Adv Nutr. 2021 Feb 1;12(1):223-233.  Systematic Review
Assessing Overall Exercise Recovery Processes Using Carbohydrate and Carbohydrate-Protein Containing Recovery Beverages.   Russo I et al. Front Physiol. 2021 Feb 4;12:628863.  RCT
Carbohydrate restriction following strenuous glycogen-depleting exercise does not potentiate the acute molecular response associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal  Ramos C et al. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2021 Feb 10.  RCT
Carbohydrate supplementation during a simulated 10-km open water swimming race: effects on physiological, perceptual parameters and performance.   Baldassarre R et al. Eur J Sport Sci. 2021 Feb 21:1-9.  RCT
Exogenous carbohydrate and regulation of muscle carbohydrate utilisation during exercise.   Malone JJ et al. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2021 Feb 5 Narrative Review
  Carbohydrate supplementation during a simulated 10-km open water swimming race: effects on physiological, perceptual parameters and performance.   Baldassarre R et al. Eur J Sport Sci. 2021 Jan 25:1-18.  RCT
Mental Health, Cognition, & Behaviour Acute diet soda consumption alters brain responses to food cues in humans: A randomized, controlled, cross-over pilot study.  Farr OM. Nutr Health. 2021 Feb 15:260106021993753.  RCT
Evidence of a Role for the Hippocampus in Food-Cue Processing and the Association with Body Weight and Dietary Added Sugar.   Jones S et al. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2021 Feb;29(2):370-378.  RCT
Dietary Patterns are Differentially Associated with Atypical and Melancholic Subtypes of Depression.   Lasserre AM et al. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 26;13(3):768 Prospective Cohort
Food Composition and Reformulation  The effect of messaging on the acceptance of swaps to reduce the energy content of snacks and non-alcoholic drinks ordered in an experimental online workplace canteen: A randomised controlled trial.   Breathnach S et al. Appetite. 2021 Feb 23;162:105171.  RCT
An assessment of nutrition information on front of pack labels and healthiness of foods in the United Kingdom retail market.  Ogundijo DA et al. BMC Public Health. 2021 Feb 8;21(1):220.  Cross-Sectional Study
Back in Time for Breakfast: An Analysis of the Changing Breakfast Cereal Aisle.   Croisier E et al. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 2;13(2):489.  Cross-Sectional Study
[Update about reformulated beverages with less and free sugars for Spain and Portugal].   Urrialde R. Nutr Hosp. 2021 Jan 13;37(Spec No2):28-33.  Narrative Review
Potential contributions of the methodology to the variability of glycaemic index of foods.   Flavel M, Jois M, Kitchen B. World J Diabetes. 2021 Feb 15;12(2):108-123.  Narrative Review

January 2021 

Below is a full list of sugars-related scientific publications published in January 2021, grouped by topic areas and ordered from higher to lower quality evidence. 

Topic Title Citations Study Type
COVID-19 Changes in diet quality and food security among adults during the COVID-19-related early lockdown: results from NutriQuébec.  Lamarche B et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Jan 5:nqaa363.  Prospective Cohort
Health behaviour change during the UK COVID-19 lockdown: Findings from the first wave of the C-19 health behaviour and well-being daily tracker study.  Naughton F et al.. Br J Health Psychol. 2021 Jan 6.  Prospective Cohort
Eating in the lockdown during the Covid 19 pandemic; self-reported changes in eating behaviour, and associations with BMI, eating style, coping and health anxiety.  Coulthard H et al.. Appetite. 2021 Jan 18:105082.  Cross-Sectional Study
COVID-19-Related Quarantine Effect on Dietary Habits in a Northern Italian Rural Population: Data from the Brisighella Heart Study.  Cicero AFG et al., The Brisighella Heart Study Group. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 22;13(2):309.  Cross-Sectional Study
Parental stress, food parenting practices and child snack intake during the COVID-19 pandemic.   Jansen E et al.. Appetite. 2021 Jan 12;161:105119.  Cross-Sectional Study
Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on glycemic control in children and adolescents.  Al Agha AE et al.. Saudi Med J. 2021 Jan;42(1):44-48.  Cross-Sectional Study
Diet, Nutrition, Obesity, and Their Implications for COVID-19 Mortality: Development of a Marginalized Two-Part Model for Semicontinuous Data.  Kamyari N et al.. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2021 Jan 26;7(1):e22717.  Ecological Study
Altered Cholesterol and Lipid Synthesis Mediates Hyperinflammation in COVID-19.  Sohrabi Y et al.. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jan 8:S1043-2760(21)00001-1.  Commentary
Could diet and exercise reduce risk of COVID-19 syndemic?  Chesnut WM et al. Med Hypotheses. 2021 Jan 24;148:110502.  Commentary
Reinventing health promotion for healthy default beverage laws in the face of COVID-19.  McGurk MD et al. Glob Health Promot. 2021 Jan 22:1757975920986696.  Commentary
Obesity  Effect of low-carbohydrate diet on adiponectin level in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.   Shemirani F et al. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Jan 18:1-10.  SRMA
Effect of a plant-based, low-fat diet versus an animal-based, ketogenic diet on ad libitum energy intake.   Hall KD et al. Nat Med. 2021 Jan 21.  RCT
Obesogenic home food availability, diet, and BMI in Pakistani and White toddlers.   LeCroy MN et al. Matern Child Nutr. 2021 Jan 19:e13138.  Prospective Cohort
Prospective Association between Dietary Patterns and BMI z-score in Brazilian Adolescents.   Arruda Neta ADCP et al. Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jan 21:1-24.  Prospective Cohort
Association of infant diet with subsequent obesity at 2-5 years among children exposed to gestational diabetes: the SWIFT study.   Vandyousefi S et al. Diabetologia. 2021 Jan 26.  Prospective Cohort
Relationship of BMI with Junk Food, sleep pattern, exam performance and awareness about its ill health effects in healthy teenagers.   Tariq S et al. J Pak Med Assoc. 2021 Jan;71(1(A)):59-63.  Cross-Sectional Study
Low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in body weight control: A recurrent plaguing issue of fad diets?  Schutz Y et al. Obes Rev. 2021 Jan 20:e13195.  Narrative Review
Diabetes Insulinemic and Inflammatory Dietary Patterns Show Enhanced Predictive Potential for Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Postmenopausal Women.  Jin Q et al. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jan 8:dc202216.  Prospective Cohort
The Prevalence of Insulin Resistance and the Associated Risk Factors in a Sample of 14-18-Year-Old Slovak Adolescents.  Jurkovičová J et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 21;18(3):909.  Cross-Sectional Study
Carbohydrate restriction for diabetes: rediscovering centuries-old wisdom.  Lennerz BS et al. J Clin Invest. 2021 Jan 4;131(1):e142246.  Cross-Sectional Study
Measuring the global, regional, and national burden of type 2 diabetes and the attributable risk factors in all 194 countries.  Yu M et al. J Diabetes. 2021 Jan 24.  Cross-Sectional Study
Medical Management of Children with Type 1 Diabetes on Low Carbohydrate or Ketogenic Diets.  Rydin AA et al. Pediatr Diabetes. 2021 Jan 19. Narrative Review
Cardiovascular Disease Effect of fructose instead of glucose or sucrose on cardiometabolic markers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of isoenergetic intervention trials.   Fattore E et al. Nutr Rev. 2021 Jan 9;79(2):209-226.  SRMA
Dietary exposures in childhood and adulthood and cardiometabolic outcomes: a systematic scoping review.   Lukomskyj N et al. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2021 Jan 6.  Systematic Review
Contribution of insulin resistance to the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and a constellation of cardiometabolic abnormalities in adolescents.   Wu PW et al. Int J Obes (Lond). 2021 Jan 20.  Cross-Sectional Study
Dietary Patterns, Blood Pressure and the Glycemic and Lipidemic Profile of Two Teenage, European Populations.   Kafyra M et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 10;13(1):198.  Cross-Sectional Study
Cardio-metabolic consequences of dietary carbohydrates: reconciling contradictions using nutritional geometry.   Wali JA et al. Cardiovasc Res. 2021 Jan 21;117(2):386-401. Narrative Review
Cancer Low-carbohydrate diets and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a large prospective cohort study.   Zhong GC et al. Carcinogenesis. 2021 Jan 22:bgab006. Prospective Cohort
Development and validation of a lifestyle-based model for colorectal cancer risk prediction: the LiFeCRC score.   Aleksandrova K et al. BMC Med. 2021 Jan 4;19(1):1.  Prospective Cohort
Association of Total Dietary Intake of Sugars with Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Concentrations: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010.   Liu Z et al. Biomed Res Int. 2021 Jan 9;2021:4140767.  Cross-Sectional Study
A review of lifestyle and environment risk factors for pancreatic cancer.   Zanini S et al. Eur J Cancer. 2021 Jan 7;145:53-70.  Cross-Sectional Study
Microbiome as Mediator of Diet on Colorectal Cancer Risk: The Role of Vitamin D, Markers of Inflammation and Adipokines.   Serrano D et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 25;13(2):363.  Narrative Review
Dental Health Community-based sugar-sweetened beverage intervention associated with short-term improvements in self-rated oral health.   Wang ML et al. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2021 Jan 3.  RCT
Evaluation of the risk factors of dental caries in children with very low birth weight and normal birth weight.  Koberova R et al. BMC Oral Health. 2021 Jan 7;21(1):11.  Prospective Cohort
Oral health status of 12-year-old children in Lisu minority ethnic group in China: a cross-sectional study.  Chen KJ et al. BMC Oral Health. 2021 Jan 12;21(1):27.  Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrition as a Key Modifiable Factor for Periodontitis and Main Chronic Diseases.  Martinon P et al. J Clin Med. 2021 Jan 7;10(2):197.  Narrative Review
The Role of Sugar-Rich Diet and Salivary Proteins in Dental Plaque Formation and Oral Health.   Benahmed AG et al. J Oral Biosci. 2021 Jan 23:S1349-0079(21)00011-6.  Narrative Review
Liver Health Effect of dietary carbohydrate and lipid modification on clinical and anthropometric parameters in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Garcêz LS et al. Nutr Rev. 2021 Jan 29:nuaa146.  SRMA
Relevance of fructose intake in adolescence for fatty liver indices in young adulthood.  Perrar I et al. Eur J Nutr. 2021 Jan 19.  Prospective Cohort
Dietary and sociodemographic factors associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver in obese pediatric patients.  León-Plascencia M et al. Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 2021 Jan 8:S0375-0906(20)30134-8.  Cross-Sectional Study
Sleep disruption in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: What is the role of lifestyle and diet?  Akram ST et al. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Jan 18.  Cross-Sectional Study
Gut Health Assessment of a 4-Week Starch- and Sucrose-Reduced Diet and Its Effects on Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Inflammatory Parameters among Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.  Nilholm C et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 28;13(2):416.  RCT
Long-term dietary intake from infancy to late adolescence is associated with gut microbiota composition in young adulthood.  Oluwagbemigun K et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Jan 20:nqaa340.  Prospective Cohort
Pregnancy & Lactation  Maternal diet and offspring telomere length: a systematic review.  Habibi N et al. Nutr Rev. 2021 Jan 9;79(2):148-159.  Systematic Review
Is soft drink consumption associated with gestational hypertension? Results from the BRISA cohort.  Barbosa JMA et al. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2021 Jan 22;54(1):e10162.  Prospective Cohort
Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain Examined As a Continuous Outcome: A Prospective Analysis.  Yu ZM et al. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2021 Jan 13 Prospective Cohort
Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy is associated with infant gut microbiota and metabolic modifications and increased infant body mass index.  Laforest-Lapointe I et al. Gut Microbes. 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-15.  Prospective Cohort
Added sugar intake during pregnancy: Fetal behavior, birth outcomes, and placental DNA methylation.  Trumpff C et al. Dev Psychobiol. 2021 Jan 7 Prospective Cohort
Other Health-Related Topics Sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverages and the risks of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.  Lo WC et al. J Nephrol. 2021 Jan 27.  SRMA
Associations of Dietary Intake on Biological Markers of Inflammation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.  Bujtor M et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 25;13(2):356.  Systematic Review
Diet and acne: review of the evidence from 2009 to 2020.  Dall'Oglio F et al. Int J Dermatol. 2021 Jan 18.  Systematic Review
Alternate Day Fasting Combined with a Low Carbohydrate Diet: Effect on Sleep Quality, Duration, Insomnia Severity and Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults with Obesity.  Kalam F et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 13;13(1):211. doi: 10.3390/nu13010211.  RCT
Fructose and high fructose corn syrup: are they a two-edged sword?  Khorshidian N et al. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Jan 26:1-23.  Narrative Review
Dietary Fructose as a model to explore the influence of peripheral metabolism on brain function and plasticity.  Gomez-Pinilla F et al. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2021 Jan 25:166036.  Narrative Review
Dietary Intake Assessment Dietary intakes, sources, and determinants of free sugars amongst Lebanese children and adolescents: findings from two national surveys.   Jomaa L et al. Eur J Nutr. 2021 Jan 2.  Cross-Sectional Study
Health behavior patterns of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among Brazilian adolescents in a nationally representative school-based study.   Rocha LL et al. PLoS One. 2021 Jan 7;16(1):e0245203.  Cross-Sectional Study
Intentions to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: the importance of perceived susceptibility to health risks.   Dono J et al. Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jan 21:1-23.  Cross-Sectional Study
Water Drinking and its Correlation with Beverage Consumption in Korean Adolescents.   Ah Han M. Am J Health Behav. 2021 Jan 1;45(1):152-160.  Cross-Sectional Study
Tiered intake assessment for low- and no-calorie sweeteners in beverages.   Tran NL et al. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2021 Jan 15:1-15.  Cross-Sectional Study
Younger Adults Are More Likely to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Decrease Sugar Intake with the Application of Dietary Monitoring.   Chung LMY et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 23;13(2):333. RCT
Adherence to food based dietary guidelines among adolescents in Germany according to socioeconomic status and region - Results from EsKiMo II.   Brettschneider AK et al. Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jan 11:1-26 Cross-Sectional Study
Does temperament make children differently susceptible to their home physical food environment? A cross-sectional DAGIS study on 3-6 year old Finnish children's food consumption.   Pajulahti R et al. Appetite. 2021 Jan 29:105140.  Cross-Sectional Study
[Analysis of sweet snack eating habits and lifestyle using a health check for toddlers].   Sasaki K et al. 2021 Jan 30;68(1):12-22.  Cross-Sectional Study
The Educational Gradient in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in the General Adult and Elderly Population: The Tromsø Study 2015-2016.   Nilsen L et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 28;13(2):405.  Cross-Sectional Study
Students choosing fat-free chocolate milk during school lunch consume more calories, total sugar, protein, minerals and vitamins at lunch.   Peckham JG et al. Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jan 14:1-23.  Cross-Sectional Study
Evaluating the African food supply against the nutrient intake goals set for preventing diet-related non-communicable diseases: 1990 to 2017 trend analysis.   Gebremedhin S, Bekele T. PLoS One. 2021 Jan 11;16(1):e0245241.  Ecological Study
Diet Quality & Nutrient Adequacy The Association Between Personality Traits and Dietary Choices: A Systematic Review.   Esposito CM et al. Adv Nutr. 2021 Jan 11:nmaa166.  Systematic Review
Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in the nutritional quality of packaged food purchases in the U.S., 2008-2018.   Lacko A et al. Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jan 27:1-34.  Cross-Sectional Study
A chrononutrition perspective of diet quality and eating behaviors of Brazilian adolescents in associated with sleep duration.   Garcez MR et al. Chronobiol Int. 2021 Jan 13:1-13.  Cross-Sectional Study
Appetite, Taste, & Eating Behaviour  Do Food Odors Differently Influence Cerebral Activity Depending on Weight Status? An Electroencephalography Study of Implicit Olfactory Priming Effects on the Processing of Food Pictures.   Zsoldos I et al. Neuroscience. 2021 Jan 20:S0306-4522(21)00022-1.  Cross-Sectional Study
The concept of "food addiction" helps inform the understanding of overeating and obesity: YES.  Gearhardt AN et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Jan 15:nqaa343.  Narrative Review
Strategies for Reducing Salt and Sugar Intakes in Individuals at Increased Cardiometabolic Risk.   Ponzo V et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 19;13(1):279 Narrative Review
Physical Activity  Effects of Two Months of Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, Muscle Area, and Blood Parameters in Competitive Natural Body Builders.   Paoli A et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 26;13(2):374. RCT
Effects of Combined Exercise and Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Interventions on Waist Circumference and Triglycerides in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.   Lee HS, Lee J. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 19;18(2):828.  RCT
Impact of pre-exercise feeding status on metabolic adaptations to endurance-type exercise training.   Edinburgh RM et al. J Physiol. 2021 Jan 11.  RCT
A 2 Week Cross-over Intervention with a Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Compared to a High Carbohydrate Diet Attenuates Exercise-Induced Cortisol Response, but Not the Reduction of Exercise Capacity, in Recreational Athletes.  Terink R et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jan 6;13(1):157.  RCT
Effects of high-carbohydrate versus mixed-macronutrient meals on female soccer physiology and performance.   Wynne JL et al. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2021 Jan 23.  RCT
The Effect of Consuming Carbohydrate With and Without Protein on the Rate of Muscle Glycogen Re-synthesis During Short-Term Post-exercise Recovery: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.  Craven J et al. Sports Med Open. 2021 Jan 28;7(1):9 RCT
  Carbohydrate supplementation during a simulated 10-km open water swimming race: effects on physiological, perceptual parameters and performance.   Baldassarre R et al. Eur J Sport Sci. 2021 Jan 25:1-18.  RCT
Mental Health, Cognition, & Behaviour Effect of glucose and sucrose on cognition in healthy humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies.  García CR et al. Nutr Rev. 2021 Jan 9;79(2):171-187.  SRMA
Lifestyle-related behaviors and health-related quality of life among children and adolescents in China.   Qin Z et al. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2021 Jan 6;19(1):8.  Cross-Sectional Study
Food addiction comorbid to mental disorders: A nationwide survey and register-based study.  Horsager C et al. Int J Eat Disord. 2021 Jan 17 Cross-Sectional Study
Does diet play a role in the prevention and management of depression among adolescents? A narrative review.   Chopra C et al. Nutr Health. 2021 Jan 8:260106020980532.  Narrative Review
Nutrition-based interventions for mood disorders.   Bhering Martins L et al. Expert Rev Neurother. 2021 Jan 25.  Narrative Review
Knowledge and Perceptions  A measure development study of sugar-sweetened beverage-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and intention among urban, low-income adults.   Heaton B et al. BMC Public Health. 2021 Jan 7;21(1):69.  Cross-Sectional Study
Intentions to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: the importance of perceived susceptibility to health risks.   Dono J et al. Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jan 21:1-23.  Cross-Sectional Study
Health professionals' knowledge, views and advice on diet and dental health: a survey of UK and Ireland dietitians and dentists.   Kingsnorth J et al. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2021 Jan 7.  Cross-Sectional Study
Food Labelling  Effect of front-of-package nutrition labeling on food purchases: a systematic review.   An R et al. Public Health. 2021 Jan 28;191:59-67.  Systematic Review
General and specific graphic health warning labels reduce willingness to consume sugar-sweetened beverages.   Schubert E et al. Appetite. 2021 Jan 29:105141.  RCT