Carbohydrate and satiety
Feinle C, O'Donovan D, Horowitz M.
Department of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia
Nutrition Reviews. 60(6):155-169, 2002 Jun.
This review focuses on what is known about the effects of carbohydrate on food intake, the potential mechanisms mediating these effects, and the impact of different monosaccharides in humans.
The inhibition of subsequent food intake associated with ingestion of carbohydrate appears to result primarily from gastrointestinal signals, including those generated by orosensory stimulation, gastric distension, and perhaps most importantly the interaction of nutrients with receptors in the small intestine. The latter is associated with the release of putative satiety hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 and amylin, and slowing of both gastric emptying and small intestinal transit (thereby prolonging gastric distension and increasing the time available for nutrient, absorption).
The effects of carbohydrate on food intake are dependent on the route of administration (i.e., oral, intragastric, or intraduodenal). Changes in blood glucose and insulin concentrations per se probably do not play a major role in the induction of satiety. Studies relating to the comparative effects of different monosaccharides/carbohydrates have yielded inconclusive results, probably in part owing to substantial differences in methodological approaches.
Link to abstract